Reading and Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Diabetic retinopathy factsheet.

CDC Vision Health Initiative. Diabetic retinopathy.

Bolinger MT, Antonetti DA. Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel therapies for treating diabetic retinopathy. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(9):1498.
doi: 10.3390/ijms17091498.

The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network []. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema. N Engl J Med. 2015; 372:1193-1203.

Eshaq RS, Aldalati AMZ, Alexander JS, Harris NR. Diabetic retinopathy: Breaking the barrier. Pathophysiology. 2017;24:229–241.

Feng S, et al. Levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, and TNF-α in aqueous humor of patients with diabetic retinopathy. J Diabetes Res. 2018:8546423.

Kusuhara S, et al. Pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy: the old and the new. Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42:364-376.

Solomon SD, Chew E, Duh EJ, et al [2017 ADA Position Statement]. Diabetic retinopathy: A position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(3):412–418.

Urias EA, Urias GA, Monickaraj F. Novel therapeutic targets in diabetic macular edema: beyond VEGF. Vision Res. 2017;139:221-227.

Wang W, Lo AC. Diabetic retinopathy: pathophysiology and treatments. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(6):1816.

Wells JA, Glassman AR, Ayala AR, et al. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema: two-year results from a comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmology. 2016;123(6):1351-1359.

Patient Education

American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS)

CDC. Watch Out for Diabetic Retinopathy.

National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP). Healthy Eyes Matter.

National Eye Institute (NEI). Diabetic retinopathy.

Clinical Trials

NIH US National Library of Medicine.

Resources from Professional Organizations

American Diabetes Association (ADA)

American Optometric Association (AOA)

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO)

American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS)

National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP)

National Eye Institute (NEI)

World Health Organization (WHO) Priority eye diseases: Diabetic retinopathy.

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Clinician Scientific & Educational Resources

The RELIEF Clinical Toolkit is an online tool that aims to provide clinicians with up-to-date information on the presentation, prognosis, pathophysiology, and treatment strategies for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetes who have or are at risk for developing DR. Click on one of the options below to learn more about DR.

This activity is provided by Med Learning Group. This activity is co-provided by Ultimate Medical Academy/CCM.
This activity is supported by an educational grant from Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

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Scientific Council

Neil M. Bressler, MD

James P. Gills Professor of Ophthalmology
Professor of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Medicine
Baltimore, MD

A. Paul Chous, MA, OD, FAAO

Specializing in Diabetes Eye Care & Education, Chous Eye Care Associates
Adjunct Professor of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences
AOA Representative, National Diabetes Education Program
Tacoma, WA

Steven Ferrucci, OD, FAAO

Chief of Optometry, Sepulveda VA Medical Center
Professor, Southern California College of Optometry at Marshall B. Ketchum University
Sepulveda, CA

Julia A. Haller, MD

Wills Eye Hospital
Philadelphia, PA

Allen C. Ho, MD, FACS

Director, Retina Research
Wills Eye Hospital
Professor and Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology
Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
Philadelphia, PA

Charles C. Wykoff, MD, PhD

Director of Research, Retina Consultants of Houston
Associate Professor of Clinical Ophthalmology
Blanton Eye Institute & Houston Methodist Hospital
Houston, TX